Solar energy in Mexico has a huge potential for generating vast amounts of energy. An 70% of its territory has an irradiance greater than 4,5 kWh / m² / day, which makes it a very sunny country, and implies that using the current photovoltaic technology, a solar plant of 25 km² anywhere in the state of Chihuahua or the Sonora desert (which would occupy 0,01% of Mexico's surface) could provide all the electricity demanded by the country.
Photovoltaic solar energy has been developed in Mexico at an increasing rate in recent years, currently with more than 200 MW installed. The Aura Solar project, located in La Paz (Baja California Sur), inaugurated at the beginning of 2014, planned to generate 82 GWh per year, enough to supply the 164 000 inhabitants (65% of La Paz's population), but It was devastated by Hurricane Odile in September of the same year and the plant has not operated since then, the installation covered a surface of 100 hectares with 131.800 polycrystalline modules on single-axis trackers.
Another photovoltaic plant of 47 MW is in the planning phase in Puerto Libertad (Sonora). The plant, originally designed to house 39 MW, was expanded to allow the generation of 107 GWh / year.
Net balance in Mexico
In Mexico there is an 2007 interconnection scheme through net balance for small-scale photovoltaic energy sources in all regions of the country where the Federal Electricity Commission operates and infrastructure allows it. Under the Mexican scheme, the generator can inject its surpluses into the public network in such a way that they are paid to pay a minimum production fee valid for 1 year; if there is no surplus, the difference between the consumption of the network and the generation of the period is charged, if this difference is lower than the cost of the minimum rate for production, the latter is charged instead of the amount of energy supplied by the public network
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The economy of Mexico is based on the free market oriented to exports. It is the 1ª largest economy in Latin America, the 2ª in Latin America and the largest 3ª economy (PPA) in the Americas, only after the United States and Brazil, according to the 2014 of the CIA. The gross domestic product exceeds the Billion dollars, making the Mexican economy the 13ª largest in the world, although in 2001 it was the ninth, and the number 13 per Exchange rate, the Moody's and Fitch IBCA corporations have granted investment degrees to Mexico's sovereign debt.
Despite its macroeconomic stability that has reduced inflation and interest rates to historic lows and increased per capita income, there are large gaps between rich and poor, the northern and southern states, and between the urban population and rural. Some of the challenges for Mexico continue to be to improve infrastructure, modernize the tax system and labor laws, and reduce income inequality.
The economy contains a mix of modern and old agricultural and industrial systems, both increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent governments have expanded competition in seaports, telecommunications, the generation of electricity, the distribution of natural gas to modernize infrastructure.
It is an export-oriented economy, with a foreign trade regulated in free trade agreements (FTA) with more than 40 countries, including the European Union, Japan, Israel and several countries of Central America and South America. . The most influential FTA is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), signed at 1992 by the governments of the United States, Canada and Mexico, which came into force at 1994. At 2006, Mexico's trade with its North American partners represented close to the 90% of its exports and the 55% of its imports. According to the Forbes Global 2000 list of the world's largest companies in 2008, Mexico had 16 companies on the list.
Mexico is the 10º largest export economy in the world and the most complex economy 21º according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI). In 2015, Mexico exported $ 391 Billions and imported $ 377 Billions, resulting in a positive trade balance of $ 14,4 Billions. In 2017 Mexico's GDP was $ 1,14 Billions (especially in past tense) and its GDP per capita was $ 17 Miles.
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